Running in production

Kinto is a standard python application.

Recommended settings for production are listed below. Some general insights about deployment strategies are also provided.

Because we use it for most of our deploys, PostgreSQL is the recommended backend for production.

Production checklist


In order to enable monitoring features like statsd, install extra requirements:

make install-monitoring

And configure its URL:

# StatsD
kinto.statsd_url = udp://carbon.server:8125


Name Description
users Number of unique user IDs.
authn_type.basicauth Number of basic authentication requests
authn_type.fxa Number of FxA authentications


Name Description
authentication.permits Time needed by the permissions backend to allow or reject a request
view.hello.GET Time needed to return the hello view
view.heartbeat.GET Time needed to return the heartbeat page
view.batch.POST Time needed to process a batch request
view.{resource}-{type}.{method} Time needed to process the specified {method} on a {resource} (e.g. bucket, collection or record). Different timers exists for the different type of resources (record or collection)
cache.{method} Time needed to execute a method of the cache backend. Methods are ping, ttl, expire, set, get and delete
storage.{method} Time needed to execute a method of the storage backend. Methods are ping, collection_timestamp, create, get, update, delete, delete_all, get_all
permission.{method} Time needed to execute a method of the permission backend. Methods are add_user_principal, remove_user_principal, user_principals, add_principal_to_ace, remove_principal_from_ace, object_permission_principals, check_permission

Heka Logging

At Mozilla, applications log files follow a specific JSON schema, that is processed through Heka.

In order to enable Mozilla Heka logging output:

# Heka
kinto.logging_renderer = cliquet.logs.MozillaHekaRenderer

With the following configuration, all logs are structured in JSON and redirected to standard output (See 12factor app). A Sentry logger is also enabled.

keys = root, kinto, cliquet

keys = console, sentry

keys = generic, heka

level = INFO
handlers = console, sentry

level = INFO
handlers = console, sentry
qualname = kinto

level = INFO
handlers = console, sentry
qualname = cliquet

class = StreamHandler
args = (sys.stdout,)
level = INFO
formatter = heka

class = raven.handlers.logging.SentryHandler
args = ('',)
level = INFO
formatter = generic

format = %(asctime)s %(levelname)-5.5s [%(name)s][%(threadName)s] %(message)s

format = %(message)s

PostgreSQL setup

In production, it is wise to run the application with a dedicated database and user.

postgres=# CREATE USER prod;
postgres=# CREATE DATABASE prod OWNER prod;

Once storage and cache are modified in .ini, the tables need to be created with the cliquet command-line tool:

$ cliquet --ini production.ini migrate


Alternatively the SQL initialization files can be found in the Cliquet source code (cliquet/cache/postgresql/schema.sql and cliquet/storage/postgresql/schema.sql).

Run the Kinto application

Using Apache mod wsgi

This is probably the easiest way to setup a production server.

With the following configuration for the site, Apache should be able to run the Kinto application:

WSGIScriptAlias /         /path/to/kinto/app.wsgi
WSGIPythonPath            /path/to/kinto
SetEnv          KINTO_INI /path/to/kinto.ini

<Directory /path/to/kinto>
  <Files app.wsgi>
    Require all granted

Using nginx

nginx can act as a reverse proxy in front of :rtd:`uWSGI <uwsgi-docs>`_ (or any other wsgi server like Gunicorn or Circus).

Download the uwsgi_params file:


Configure nginx to listen to a uwsgi running:

upstream kinto {
    server unix:///var/run/uwsgi/kinto.sock;

server {
    listen      8000;
    server_name; # substitute your machine's IP address or FQDN
    charset     utf-8;

    # max upload size
    client_max_body_size 75M;   # adjust to taste

    location / {
        uwsgi_pass  kinto;
        include     /path/to/uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file previously downloaded

Running with uWSGI

pip install uwsgi

To run the application using uWSGI, an app.wsgi file is provided. This command can be used to run it:

uwsgi --ini config/kinto.ini

uWSGI configuration can be tweaked in the ini file in the dedicated [uwsgi] section.

Here’s an example:

wsgi-file = app.wsgi
enable-threads = true
socket = /var/run/uwsgi/kinto.sock
chmod-socket = 666
processes =  3
master = true
module = kinto
harakiri = 120
uid = kinto
gid = kinto
virtualenv = .venv
lazy = true
lazy-apps = true
single-interpreter = true
buffer-size = 65535
post-buffering = 65535

To use a different ini file, the KINTO_INI environment variable should be present with a path to it.

Nginx as cache server

If Nginx is used as a reverse proxy, it can also act as a cache server by taking advantage of Kinto optional cache control response headers (forced in settings or set on collections).

The sample Nginx configuration file shown above will look like so:

proxy_cache_path /tmp/nginx levels=1:2 keys_zone=my_zone:100m inactive=200m;
proxy_cache_key "$scheme$request_method$host$request_uri$";

server {

    location / {
        proxy_cache my_zone;

        uwsgi_pass  kinto;
        include     /path/to/uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file previously downloaded