Plural endpoints (such as collections) support restricting the set of returned results by means of filters. Filters are predicates that can be expressed by query parameters. Elements of the plural endpoint (such as records) that do not match the predicates are omitted from the response.

Most filters are expressed using a query parameter of the form [operator_]field=value. The (optional) operator is one from the list below. The field name can be simple or a dotted field name. Values can be any JSON encoded value (e.g. 24, "hello", [1, 2, 4], {"flavor": "strawberry"}, true, or null). Anything not recognized as a JSON value is interpreted as a string.

Single value

  • /collection?field=value


  • /collection?author=2

    Matches any record whose author field is equal to the number 2.

  • /collection?author="Ben"

    Matches any record whose author field is equal to the string Ben.

  • /collection?author=Ben

    Same as the previous example, but relying on the behavior that anything that isn’t JSON is a string.

  • /collection?author="2.0"

    Matches any record whose author field is equal to the string value "2.0". This is useful if your records contain something numeric-ish but not quite numeric, like a version number.

It also works with multiple values:

  • /collection?field=[1,2]

Or even objects:

  • /collection?field={"checked": true}


  • /collection?field.subfield=value


The filters lt and gt are available to compare against values.

  • /collection?gt_orders=100

    Retrieve any records whose orders field is (strictly) greater than 100.

This bound is exclusive (i.e., in the previous example, it would not retrieve a record whose orders field was equal to 100. To check “less than or equal”, use min. To check “greater than or equal”, use max.

  • /collection?min_orders=100

    Retrieve any records whose orders field is greater than or equal to 100.

At the present time, the comparison order between values of different types is not defined. For example, if you have a record like {"author": 1} and another like {"author": "2"}, requesting /collection?gt_author=1 may return the second one, or it may not. However, a comparison operator will match whatever order you get by sorting, and the ordering will include all records.

Multiple values

Prefix field with in_ and provide comma-separated values.

  • /collection?in_status=1,2,3


Prefix field name with not_:

  • /collection?not_field=0

Exclude multiple values

Prefix field name with exclude_:

  • /collection?exclude_field=0,1

Search string fields

Prefix field name with like_:

  • /collection?like_field=foo

The specified value can also contain wildchars:

  • /collection?like_field=foo* (starts with foo)
  • /collection?like_field=*foo (ends with foo)
  • /collection?like_field=*foo* (equivalent to like_field=foo)

Field existence

You can request records that have a certain field (for example, author) using has_author=true or those that don’t have that field by using has_author=false.

  • /collection?has_field=true

Note that a record like {"author": null} still counts as “having” that field.

Polling for changes


The ETag and Last-Modified response headers will always be the same as the unfiltered collection.

One important use of this is when polling for changes.

The _since parameter is provided as an alias for gt_last_modified.

  • /collection?_since=1437035923844

When filtering on last_modified every deleted records will appear in the list with a deleted flag and a last_modified value that corresponds to the deletion event.

If the If-None-Match: "<timestamp>" request header is provided as described in the section about timestamps and if the collection was not changed, a 304 Not Modified response is returned.


The _before parameter is also available, and is an alias for lt_last_modified (strictly inferior).


_since and _before also accept a value between quotes (") as it would be returned in the ETag response header (see response timestamps).


GET /articles?_since=1437035923844 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Authorization: Basic bWF0Og==
Host: localhost:8000


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
Access-Control-Expose-Headers: Backoff, Retry-After, Alert, Content-Length, ETag, Next-Page, Total-Records, Last-Modified
Content-Length: 436
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Date: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 12:08:11 GMT
Last-Modified: Mon, 12 Apr 2015 11:12:07 GMT
ETag: "1430222877724"
Total-Records: 2

    "data": [
            "id": "dc86afa9-a839-4ce1-ae02-3d538b75496f",
            "last_modified": 1430222877724,
            "title": "MoCo",
            "url": "",
            "id": "23160c47-27a5-41f6-9164-21d46141804d",
            "last_modified": 1430140411480,
            "title": "MoFo",
            "url": "",
            "id": "11130c47-37a5-41f6-9112-32d46141804f",
            "deleted": true,
            "last_modified": 1430140411480