Plural endpoints (such as collections) support restricting the set of returned results by means of filters. Filters are predicates that can be expressed by query parameters. Elements of the plural endpoint (such as records) that do not match the predicates are omitted from the response.

Single value

  • /collection?field=value


  • /collection?field.subfield=value

Minimum and maximum

Prefix field name with min_ or max_:

  • /collection?min_field=4000


The lower and upper bounds are inclusive (i.e equivalent to greater or equal).


lt_ and gt_ can also be used to exclude the bound.

Multiple values

Prefix field with in_ and provide comma-separated values.

  • /collection?in_status=1,2,3


Prefix field name with not_:

  • /collection?not_field=0

Exclude multiple values

Prefix field name with exclude_:

  • /collection?exclude_field=0,1

Search string fields

Prefix field name with like_:

  • /collection?like_field=foo


Will return an error if a field is unknown.


The ETag and Last-Modified response headers will always be the same as the unfiltered collection.

One important use of this is when polling for changes.

Polling for changes

The _since parameter is provided as an alias for gt_last_modified.

  • /collection?_since=1437035923844

When filtering on last_modified every deleted records will appear in the list with a deleted flag and a last_modified value that corresponds to the deletion event.

If the If-None-Match: "<timestamp>" request header is provided as described in the section about timestamps and if the collection was not changed, a 304 Not Modified response is returned.


The _before parameter is also available, and is an alias for lt_last_modified (strictly inferior).


_since and _before also accept a value between quotes (") as it would be returned in the ETag response header (see response timestamps).


GET /articles?_since=1437035923844 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json
Authorization: Basic bWF0Og==
Host: localhost:8000


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
Access-Control-Expose-Headers: Backoff, Retry-After, Alert, Content-Length, ETag, Next-Page, Total-Records, Last-Modified
Content-Length: 436
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Date: Tue, 28 Apr 2015 12:08:11 GMT
Last-Modified: Mon, 12 Apr 2015 11:12:07 GMT
ETag: "1430222877724"
Total-Records: 2

    "data": [
            "id": "dc86afa9-a839-4ce1-ae02-3d538b75496f",
            "last_modified": 1430222877724,
            "title": "MoCo",
            "url": "",
            "id": "23160c47-27a5-41f6-9164-21d46141804d",
            "last_modified": 1430140411480,
            "title": "MoFo",
            "url": "",
            "id": "11130c47-37a5-41f6-9112-32d46141804f",
            "deleted": true,
            "last_modified": 1430140411480